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Thread: MN 9: Sammaditthi Sutta: Dependent Origination

  1. #21
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    Researching the word 'pātubhāvo' ('manifestation'; 'appearance') to explore its meaning, it is found in the following contexts & suttas, most notably in the Pātubhāva Sutta in AN 6.96:

    Monks, the manifestation of six things is rare in the world, namely:

    1. The manifestation of a Tathagata (Buddha).

    2. One who can teach the Dhamma & Discipline of a Tathagata.

    3. Attainment as a noble (enlightened) disciple.

    4. Endowment with unimpaired sense faculties.

    5. Being intelligent & astute.

    6. Desire for the wholesome Dhamma.

    AN 6.96
    Similarly, AN 5.144:

    The manifestation (pātubhāvo) is five gems in rare in the world. What five? The manifestation of a Tathagata; a person that teaches the Dhamma proclaimed by a Tathagata; a person who understands the Dhamma when taught; a person who practises that Dhamma; and grateful & thankful person. It is the manifestation of these five gems that is rare in the world.

    AN 5.144
    Other suttas include:

    Monks, the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of one person is the manifestation of great vision, of great light, of great radiance; it is the manifestation of the six things unsurpassed; the realisation of the four analytical knowledges; the penetration of the various elements, of the diversity of elements; it is the realisation of the fruit of knowledge and liberation; the realisation of the fruits of stream-entry, once-returning, non-returning and arahatship. Who is that one person? It is the Tathāgata, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One. This is that one person

    AN 1.175
    With the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of a Tathagata, bhikkhus, an Arahant, a Perfectly Enlightened One, comes the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the seven gems of the factors of enlightenment. What seven? There comes the manifestation of the gem of the enlightenment factor of mindfulness … the gem of the enlightenment factor of equanimity. With the manifestation of a Tathagata, an Arahant, a Perfectly Enlightened One, comes the manifestation of these seven gems of the factors of enlightenment.

    SN 46.42
    At Savatthī. Bhikkhus, these eight things, developed and cultivated, if unarisen do not arise apart from the appearance of a Tathagata, an Arahant, a Perfectly Enlightened One. What eight? Right view … right concentration. These eight things….”

    SN 45.14
    If, friends, internally the eye is intact but no external forms come into its range, and there is no corresponding conscious engagement, then there is no manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the corresponding section of consciousness. If internally the eye is intact and external forms come into its range, but there is no corresponding conscious engagement, then there is no manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the corresponding section of consciousness. But when internally the eye is intact and external forms come into its range and there is the corresponding conscious engagement, then there is the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the corresponding section of consciousness.

    MN 28
    When the mind is concentration, the Dhamma becomes manifest (pātubhāvo), because of which he is one reckoned as 'one who dwells diligently'.

    SN 55.40
    And which is painful practice with slow intuition? There is the case where a monk remains focused on unattractiveness with regard to the body, percipient of loathsomeness with regard to food, percipient of non-delight with regard to the entire world, (and) focused on inconstancy with regard to all fabrications. The perception of death is well established within him. He dwells in dependence on the five powers of a learner — strength of conviction, strength of conscience, strength of concern, strength of persistence & strength of discernment — but these five faculties of his— the faculty of conviction, the faculty of persistence, the faculty of mindfulness, the faculty of concentration, the faculty of discernment — manifest (pātubhāvanti) weakly. Because of their weakness, he attains only slowly the immediacy that leads to the ending of the effluents. This is called painful practice with slow intuition.

    AN 4.163
    When the nature of things becomes really manifest (pātubhāvo)
    To the ardent meditating brāhmaṇa,
    He dwells dispelling Māra’s army,
    As the sun dwells lighting up the firmament.

    Ud 1.3
    Bhikkhus, when a deva is due to pass away from a company of devas, five prognostic signs appear (pātubhāvo): his flower-garlands wither, his clothes become soiled, sweat is released from his armpits, his bodily radiance fades and the deva takes no delight in his heavenly throne.

    Iti 83
    From reading the sutta contexts above, it appears 'pātubhāvo' ('manifestation'/'appearance') refers to processes of transformation, be they physical (such as the body sweating, per Iti 83) or mental (such as a person or five aggregates becoming a Buddha or a person manifesting gratitude & thankfulness, per AN 5.144).


  2. #22
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
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    Interim conclusion:

    So far, from a reading & analysis of the definition of 'birth' ('jati'), the following Pali words appear to have the following meaning:

    Katamā ca bhikkhave, jāti? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti nibbatti abhinibbatti, khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo...

    And what, bhikkhus, is birth? The birth, mental conception, development, production & completion of [the view, convention or verbal designation] of beings and various orders/groups of beings based on/from the [various] manifestations of the aggregates....
    For example:

    * When aggregates have black skin, ignorance produces the view of being call a 'negro' or 'African'; when aggregates have white skin, ignorance produces the view of being called a 'Caucasian'.

    * When aggregates have breasts, ignorance produces the view of being called a 'woman'; when aggregates breast feed, ignorance produces the view of a 'mother'.

    * When aggregates use a plough & sickle, ignorance produces the view of a being called 'a farmer'; when aggregates wear a blue uniform & a gun, ignorance produces the view of a being called a 'policeman'.

    * When aggregates are intimately touched by another set of aggregates, ignorance produces the view a being called 'my lover' or 'my wife' or 'my husband'.

    * When aggregates bear other aggregates, ignorance produces the view a being called 'my children'.

    * When aggregates look into a mirror, ignorance produces the view a being called 'me'.

    * When aggregates manifest love, ignorance produces the view of a being called 'a nice person' or a 'god/angel'.

    * When aggregates manifest hate, ignorance produces the view of a being called 'a bad person' or a 'devil'.

    Thus, according to SN 22.81, SN 5.10, MN 98 & MN 86, it appears 'birth' ('jati') refers to the mental production of views about 'beings' and different kinds of 'beings'.

    He assumes the five aggregates to be 'self'. Now that assumption is a fabrication. What is the cause, what is the origination, what is the birth, what is the coming-into-existence of that fabrication? To an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person, touched by the feeling born of contact with ignorance, craving arises. That fabrication is born of that. And that fabrication is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. That craving... That feeling... That contact... That ignorance is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen.

    SN 22.81
    In human bodies in themselves, nothing distinctive can be found. Distinction among human beings is purely verbal designation….For name & clan are assigned, originating in conventions…Whoever makes his living among men by agriculture is called a ‘farmer’…Whoever makes his living among men by merchandise is called a ‘merchant’…that is how the wise truly see…seers of dependent origination.

    MN 98
    "Sister, since I was born in the noble birth, I do not recall intentionally killing a living being. Through this may there be wellbeing for you, wellbeing for your baby."

    MN 86
    Why now do you assume 'a being'?
    Mara, have you grasped a view?
    This is a heap of sheer constructions:
    Here no being is found.

    Just as, with an assemblage of parts,
    The word 'chariot' is used,
    So, when the aggregates are present,
    There's the convention 'a being.'

    It's only suffering that comes to be,
    Suffering that stands and falls away.
    Nothing but suffering comes to be,
    Nothing but suffering ceases.

    SN 5.10


    The last two words 'āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho' will be explored at a later time.

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