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Thread: MN 9: Sammaditthi Sutta: Dependent Origination

  1. #21
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    Researching the word 'pātubhāvo' ('manifestation'; 'appearance') to explore its meaning, it is found in the following contexts & suttas, most notably in the Pātubhāva Sutta in AN 6.96:

    Monks, the manifestation of six things is rare in the world, namely:

    1. The manifestation of a Tathagata (Buddha).

    2. One who can teach the Dhamma & Discipline of a Tathagata.

    3. Attainment as a noble (enlightened) disciple.

    4. Endowment with unimpaired sense faculties.

    5. Being intelligent & astute.

    6. Desire for the wholesome Dhamma.

    AN 6.96
    Similarly, AN 5.144:

    The manifestation (pātubhāvo) is five gems in rare in the world. What five? The manifestation of a Tathagata; a person that teaches the Dhamma proclaimed by a Tathagata; a person who understands the Dhamma when taught; a person who practises that Dhamma; and grateful & thankful person. It is the manifestation of these five gems that is rare in the world.

    AN 5.144
    Other suttas include:

    Monks, the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of one person is the manifestation of great vision, of great light, of great radiance; it is the manifestation of the six things unsurpassed; the realisation of the four analytical knowledges; the penetration of the various elements, of the diversity of elements; it is the realisation of the fruit of knowledge and liberation; the realisation of the fruits of stream-entry, once-returning, non-returning and arahatship. Who is that one person? It is the Tathāgata, the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One. This is that one person

    AN 1.175
    With the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of a Tathagata, bhikkhus, an Arahant, a Perfectly Enlightened One, comes the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the seven gems of the factors of enlightenment. What seven? There comes the manifestation of the gem of the enlightenment factor of mindfulness … the gem of the enlightenment factor of equanimity. With the manifestation of a Tathagata, an Arahant, a Perfectly Enlightened One, comes the manifestation of these seven gems of the factors of enlightenment.

    SN 46.42
    At Savatthī. Bhikkhus, these eight things, developed and cultivated, if unarisen do not arise apart from the appearance of a Tathagata, an Arahant, a Perfectly Enlightened One. What eight? Right view … right concentration. These eight things….”

    SN 45.14
    If, friends, internally the eye is intact but no external forms come into its range, and there is no corresponding conscious engagement, then there is no manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the corresponding section of consciousness. If internally the eye is intact and external forms come into its range, but there is no corresponding conscious engagement, then there is no manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the corresponding section of consciousness. But when internally the eye is intact and external forms come into its range and there is the corresponding conscious engagement, then there is the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the corresponding section of consciousness.

    MN 28
    When the mind is concentration, the Dhamma becomes manifest (pātubhāvo), because of which he is one reckoned as 'one who dwells diligently'.

    SN 55.40
    And which is painful practice with slow intuition? There is the case where a monk remains focused on unattractiveness with regard to the body, percipient of loathsomeness with regard to food, percipient of non-delight with regard to the entire world, (and) focused on inconstancy with regard to all fabrications. The perception of death is well established within him. He dwells in dependence on the five powers of a learner — strength of conviction, strength of conscience, strength of concern, strength of persistence & strength of discernment — but these five faculties of his— the faculty of conviction, the faculty of persistence, the faculty of mindfulness, the faculty of concentration, the faculty of discernment — manifest (pātubhāvanti) weakly. Because of their weakness, he attains only slowly the immediacy that leads to the ending of the effluents. This is called painful practice with slow intuition.

    AN 4.163
    When the nature of things becomes really manifest (pātubhāvo)
    To the ardent meditating brāhmaṇa,
    He dwells dispelling Māra’s army,
    As the sun dwells lighting up the firmament.

    Ud 1.3
    Bhikkhus, when a deva is due to pass away from a company of devas, five prognostic signs appear (pātubhāvo): his flower-garlands wither, his clothes become soiled, sweat is released from his armpits, his bodily radiance fades and the deva takes no delight in his heavenly throne.

    Iti 83
    From reading the sutta contexts above, it appears 'pātubhāvo' ('manifestation'/'appearance') refers to processes of transformation, be they physical (such as the body sweating, per Iti 83) or mental (such as a person or five aggregates becoming a Buddha or a person manifesting gratitude & thankfulness, per AN 5.144).


  2. #22
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    Interim conclusion:

    So far, from a reading & analysis of the definition of 'birth' ('jati'), the following Pali words appear to have the following meaning:

    Katamā ca bhikkhave, jāti? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti nibbatti abhinibbatti, khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo...

    And what, bhikkhus, is birth? The birth, mental conception, development, production & completion of [the view, convention or verbal designation] of beings and various orders/groups of beings based on/from the [various] manifestations of the aggregates....
    For example:

    * When aggregates have black skin, ignorance produces the view of being call a 'negro' or 'African'; when aggregates have white skin, ignorance produces the view of being called a 'Caucasian'.

    * When aggregates have breasts, ignorance produces the view of being called a 'woman'; when aggregates breast feed, ignorance produces the view of a 'mother'.

    * When aggregates use a plough & sickle, ignorance produces the view of a being called 'a farmer'; when aggregates wear a blue uniform & a gun, ignorance produces the view of a being called a 'policeman'.

    * When aggregates are intimately touched by another set of aggregates, ignorance produces the view a being called 'my lover' or 'my wife' or 'my husband'.

    * When aggregates bear other aggregates, ignorance produces the view a being called 'my children'.

    * When aggregates look into a mirror, ignorance produces the view a being called 'me'.

    * When aggregates manifest love, ignorance produces the view of a being called 'a nice person' or a 'god/angel'.

    * When aggregates manifest hate, ignorance produces the view of a being called 'a bad person' or a 'devil'.

    Thus, according to SN 22.81, SN 5.10, MN 98 & MN 86, it appears 'birth' ('jati') refers to the mental production of views about 'beings' and different kinds of 'beings'.

    He assumes the five aggregates to be 'self'. Now that assumption is a fabrication. What is the cause, what is the origination, what is the birth, what is the coming-into-existence of that fabrication? To an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person, touched by the feeling born of contact with ignorance, craving arises. That fabrication is born of that. And that fabrication is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen. That craving... That feeling... That contact... That ignorance is inconstant, fabricated, dependently co-arisen.

    SN 22.81
    In human bodies in themselves, nothing distinctive can be found. Distinction among human beings is purely verbal designation….For name & clan are assigned, originating in conventions…Whoever makes his living among men by agriculture is called a ‘farmer’…Whoever makes his living among men by merchandise is called a ‘merchant’…that is how the wise truly see…seers of dependent origination.

    MN 98
    "Sister, since I was born in the noble birth, I do not recall intentionally killing a living being. Through this may there be wellbeing for you, wellbeing for your baby."

    MN 86
    Why now do you assume 'a being'?
    Mara, have you grasped a view?
    This is a heap of sheer constructions:
    Here no being is found.

    Just as, with an assemblage of parts,
    The word 'chariot' is used,
    So, when the aggregates are present,
    There's the convention 'a being.'

    It's only suffering that comes to be,
    Suffering that stands and falls away.
    Nothing but suffering comes to be,
    Nothing but suffering ceases.

    SN 5.10


    The last two words 'āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho' will be explored at a later time.

  3. #23
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    'āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho' are the last two words in the description of 'jati' ('birth').

    Ayatanānaṃ refers to the sense spheres, particularly sense objects rather than sense organs.

    The sense spheres are defined as follows:

    The six internal media (āyatanāni) should be known.' Thus was it said. In reference to what was it said? The eye-medium, the ear-medium, the nose-medium, the tongue-medium, the body-medium, the intellect-medium.

    'The six external media (āyatanāni) should be known.' Thus was it said. In reference to what was it said? The form-medium, the sound-medium, the aroma-medium, the flavor-medium, the tactile sensation-medium, the mind-objects-medium.

    MN 148
    Nibbana, as a mind object, is also an 'ayatana', as follows:

    There is, bhikkhus, that base (āyatanā) where there is no earth, no water, no fire, no air; no base consisting of the infinity of space, no base consisting of the infinity of consciousness, no base consisting of nothingness, no base consisting of neither-perception-nor-non-perception; neither this world nor another world nor both; neither sun nor moon. Here, bhikkhus, I say there is no coming, no going, no staying, no deceasing, no uprising. Not fixed, not movable, it has no support. Just this is the end of suffering. Ud 8.1
    If 'āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho' referred to the growth or obtaining of sense organs on an embryo, as it is often interpreted, the word used would probably be 'indriya', which is used for the sense organs themselves, as follows:

    Friend, there are these five faculties (indriya) each with a separate range, a separate domain, and they do not experience one another's range & domain: the eye-faculty, the ear-faculty, the nose-faculty, the tongue-faculty, & the body-faculty. These five faculties — the eye-faculty, the ear-faculty, the nose-faculty, the tongue-faculty, & the body-faculty — remain standing in dependence on vitality. Vitality remains standing in dependence on heat. Heat remains standing in dependence on vitality.

    MN 43
    The most important term is 'paṭilābho', with a dictionary meaning as follows:

    attainment; acquisition; obtaining; receiving, taking up, acquisition, assumption, attainment
    The word 'paṭilābho' is used in the following contexts in the suttas:

    Bhikkhus, there are these eight causes and conditions that lead to obtaining (paṭilābhāya) the wisdom fundamental to the spiritual life when it has not been obtained (appaṭiladdhāya) and to its increase, maturation, and fulfillment by development after it has been obtained (paṭiladdhāya). What eight?.... Here, a bhikkhu lives in dependence on the Teacher.... AN 8.2
    ....verified confidence in the Awakened One... verified confidence in the Dhamma... verified confidence in the Sangha... endowed with virtues that are appealing to the noble ones.... the gaining (paṭilābho) of the four continents [by an emperor] is not equal to one sixteenth of the gaining (paṭilābho) of these four qualities. SN 55.1
    There are four acquisitions (paṭilābho) of individuality (attabhāva; self-becoming)... (i) where one’s own volition (attasañcetanā) operates but not the volition of others (parasañcetanā); (ii) where volition of others operates but not the volition of onself; (iii) where volition of both one self & others operates; and (iv) where volition of neither oneself or others operates...the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.... AN 4.171
    There are, bhikkhus, these three perils when mother & son reconnect that the uninstructed worldling speaks of as perils that separate mother & son. What three? (1) “There comes a time when a great conflagration arises. When the great conflagration has arisen, it burns up villages, towns & cities. When villages, towns & cities are burning up, there is sometimes an occasion when the mother finds (paṭilabhati) her son & the son finds (paṭilabhati) his mother. This is the first peril when mother & son reconnect that the uninstructed worldling speaks of as a peril that separates mother & son. AN 3.62
    'I have destroyed life, so I am bound for a state of misery, bound for hell'. He acquires (paṭilabhati) such a view. SN 42.8
    A monk, having practiced in this way — 'It should not be, it should not occur to me; it will not be, it will not occur to me. What is, what has come to be, that I abandon' — obtains equanimity (evaṃ upekkhaṃ paṭilabhati). MN 106
    Conclusion:

    It seems the word 'paṭilābho' is used in the Pali suttas to refer to the mind 'acquiring' things, such as wisdom, views, mental states, spiritual qualities &, most relevantly, a sense of 'individuality' or 'personality' (attabhāva) based on the mind's own intentions or the intentions of others (for example, a child acquiring a personality based on the intentions of its parents or people brainwashed by the political propaganda of others).

    Therefore, in relation to the term 'birth' ('jati') in dependent origination, the term 'āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho' appears to refer to the mind producing (abhinibbatti) ideas of 'beings' ('sattanam') by 'taking up' or being 'seized' by sense objects.

    For example, the mind sees a sense object (ayatana) of five aggregates (khandhānaṃ) carrying a weapon that also manifests (pātubhāvo) anger & rage. The mind is 'seized by' (paṭilābho) or 'takes on/takes up' (paṭilābho) that external sense object (ayatana) & the internal sense object of fear (ayatana) & produces (abhinibbatti) ideas/views of 'a being' ('sattanam') both internally (as 'myself') & externally (a 'murderer'). This is 'birth' of views of 'self' or 'beings' based on the appearance (pātubhāvo) of aggregates (khandhānaṃ) & seizure by/taking on/taking up (paṭilābho) the sense objects (āyatanānaṃ).

    Meditation:

    Meditation on 'birth' is probably the most difficult. Meditators commonly easily experience the loss of self-view internally however it is more difficult to end self-views externally in respect to external sense objects.

    Warning: Don't try this at home but fully enlightened minds (Buddhas) see only aggregates & sense objects rather than "beings" or "persons". Buddhas have ended 'birth' ('jati'). When in a crowd of people, discern how the mind is creating different labels to categorize different people. Then give up those labels & classifications and view those different sense objects as merely objects; merely aggregates (rather than as this & that "person" & "type of person").

    This ends the exploration of the word 'jati' in dependent origination.

    Final translation of 'jati':

    Katamā ca bhikkhave, jāti? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti nibbatti abhinibbatti, khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho, ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave, jāti.

    What is birth? It is the birth of [the view/idea of] beings & the various types of beings; its conception, development, production and completion; from the manifestation/appearance/impression of aggregates & the taking up of/acquisition of/seizure by [external & internal] sense objects. This is called birth.

    SN 12.2

  4. #24
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    The final condition in the dependent origination of suffering is 'aging-&-death', which is as follows:

    And what is aging and death? The aging of beings in the various orders of beings, their old age, brokenness of teeth, grayness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline of life, weakness of faculties — this is called aging. The passing of beings out of the various orders of beings, their passing away, dissolution, disappearance, dying, completion of time, dissolution of the aggregates, laying down of the body — this is called death.

    MN 9
    Due the 'physical nature' of much of the above description (such as brokenness of teeth, grayness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline of life, laying down of the corpse, etc), it is often argued or interpreted that 'aging-&-death' refers to physical aging & death.

    However, as discussed extensively for the condition of 'birth' ('jati'), the central concept in the definition is that of the view of 'beings' ('satta').

    Therefore, aging-&-death in dependent origination appears to be another self-view, which finally gives rises to sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief & despair and the whole mass of suffering, such as:

    • When a person looks into the mirror at broken teeth, graying hair, wrinkling skin and thinks: "I am getting old" and suffers about that.

    • When a wife suffers because her husband says to her: "Your skin is wrinkling & you are not beautiful anymore".

    • When the laying down of the corpse is seen of: "My mother, my father, my wife, my husband, my child, my friend, my love".

    Thus the suttas describe about suffering &, alternately, not suffering:

    He assumes form (the body) to be self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He is seized with the idea that 'I am form' or 'Form is mine.' As he is seized with these ideas, his form changes & alters, and he falls into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, & despair over its change & alteration.

    He does not assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He is not seized with the idea that 'I am form' or 'Form is mine.' As he is not seized with these ideas, his form changes & alters, but he does not fall into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair over its change & alteration.

    SN 22.1
    Long have you experienced the death of a mother. The tears you have shed over the death of a mother while spinning & wandering this long, long time — crying & weeping from being joined with what is displeasing, being separated from what is pleasing — are greater than the water in the four great oceans.

    Long have you experienced the death of a father… the death of a brother… the death of a sister… the death of a son… the death of a daughter… loss with regard to relatives… loss with regard to wealth… loss with regard to disease. The tears you have shed over loss with regard to disease while spinning & wandering this long, long time — crying & weeping from being joined with what is displeasing, being separated from what is pleasing — are greater than the water in the four great oceans.

    SN 15.3
    Lord, how could there not be an aberration in my faculties? My dear & beloved little son, my only child, has died. Because of his death, I have no desire to work or to eat. I keep going to the cemetery and crying out, 'Where have you gone, my only little child? Where have you gone, my only little child?'

    That's the way it is, householder. That's the way it is — for sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress & despair are born from one who is dear, come springing from one who is dear.

    MN 87
    He has been stilled where the currents of conceiving do not flow. And when the currents of conceiving do not flow, he is said to be a sage at peace.’ Thus was it said. With reference to what was it said? ‘I am’ is a conceiving. ‘I am this’ is a conceiving. ‘I shall be’ is a conceiving. ‘I shall not be’ is a conceiving …. Conceiving is a disease, conceiving is a cancer, conceiving is an arrow. By going beyond all conceiving , he is said to be a sage at peace.

    A sage at peace is not born, does not age, does not die, is unagitated and is free from longing. He has nothing whereby he would be born. Not being born, will he age? Not aging, will he die? Not dying, will he be agitated? Not being agitated, for what will he long?

    It was in reference to this that it was said, ‘He has been stilled where the currents of conceiving do not flow. And when the currents of conceiving do not flow, he is said to be a sage at peace.

    MN 140
    In SN 22.85, it seems to be said the idea that a Buddha 'dies' is wrong view. Instead, the right view is the five aggregates end, that is all:

    Then, friend Yamaka, how would you answer if you are thus asked: 'A monk, a worthy one, with no more mental effluents: what is he on the break-up of the body, after death?'

    Thus asked, I would answer, ‘Form is impermanent… Feeling… Perception… Fabrications… Consciousness is impermanent. That which is impermanent is unsatisfactory. That which is unsatisfactory has ceased and gone to its end.’

    Very good, my friend Yamaka. Very good.

    SN 22.85
    Conclusion:

    Dependent origination concludes with aging-&-death, i.e., change-&-loss, causing suffering. Such aging-&-death & suffering can only occur when there is the idea or view of a 'being' ('satta') that is subject to or the object of aging, death & loss.

    This ends dependent origination.



    And what may be said to be subject to birth? Spouses & children are subject to birth. Men & women slaves... goats & sheep... fowl & pigs... elephants, cattle, horses, & mares... gold & silver are subject to birth. Subject to birth are these acquisitions and one who is tied to them, infatuated with them, who has totally fallen for them, being subject to birth, seeks what is likewise subject to birth.

    And what may be said to be subject to aging... illness... death... sorrow... defilement? Spouses & children... men & women slaves... goats & sheep... fowl & pigs... elephants, cattle, horses, & mares... gold & silver are subject to aging... illness... death... sorrow... defilement. Subject to aging... illness... death... sorrow... defilement are these acquisitions, and one who is tied to them, infatuated with them, who has totally fallen for them, being subject to birth, seeks what is likewise subject to aging... illness... death... sorrow... defilement.

    MN 26

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