Page 2 of 3 FirstFirst 1 2 3 LastLast

Thread: MN 9: Sammaditthi Sutta: Dependent Origination

  1. #11
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    There are these six classes of craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for odors, craving for flavors, craving for tangibles, craving for mind-objects. With the arising of feeling there is the arising of craving.

    MN 9
    The 8th condition of dependent origination is 'craving' ('tanha'), which refers to craving for sense objects.

    The 8th condition should not be mixed up with the 1st condition, in which the 1st condition includes the sensual desire & craving for becoming that are the in-born underlying tendencies (anusaya) that spontaneously flows out as 'asava'.

    As stated, the 8th condition is craving for sense objects, which can include craving towards desires that spontaneously flow out as 'asava'.

    Craving is described in many ways, such as craving for sensual pleasures, craving-to-be, craving-not-to-be, greed, lust, hatred, delusion, etc.

    Craving is identified in Buddhism as a core problem because craving is the urge that drives life forms, often uncontrollably, to act.

    For example, the core problem of addiction is craving.

    The suttas state:

    Through many a birth in samsara have I wandered in vain, seeking the builder of this house. Repeated birth is indeed suffering! O house-builder [craving], you are seen! You will not build this house again. For your rafters are broken and your ridgepole shattered. My mind has reached the Unconditioned; I have attained the destruction of craving.

    Dhammapada 153
    Craving is the seamstress. For craving sews the production (abhinibbattiyā) of this or that state of [ego] existence (bhavassa).

    AN 6.61
    Then two strong men would seize both his arms and drag him to the pit of glowing embers. In that manner, I say, O monks, should the nutriment volitional thought be considered. If the nutriment volitional thought is comprehended, the three kinds of craving are thereby comprehended.

    SN 12.63
    335. Whoever is overcome by this wretched and sticky craving, his sorrows grow like grass after the rains.

    336. But whoever overcomes this wretched craving, so difficult to overcome, from him sorrows fall away like water from a lotus leaf.

    342. Beset by craving, people run about like an entrapped hare. Held fast by mental fetters, they come to suffering again and again for a long time.

    343. Beset by craving, people run about like an entrapped hare. Therefore, one who yearns to be passion-free should destroy his own craving.

    Dhammapada
    Similar to 'feelings' ('vedana'), craving is not thought . Craving is an urge, a drive, an energetic propulsion. MN 148 states:

    With feeling as a requisite condition there is craving. 'The six classes of craving should be known.'
    Nor are thoughts of "I am" craving. Craving is one thing; thoughts of "I am" are another thing. SN 12.12 states:

    "Who, O Lord, craves?"

    "The question is not correct," said the Exalted One. "I do not say that 'he craves.' Had I said so, then the question 'Who craves?' would be appropriate. But since I did not speak thus, the correct way to ask the question will be 'What is the condition of craving?' And to that the correct reply is: 'Feeling is the condition of craving and craving is the condition of clinging.'"
    Meditation:

    1. To know craving directly, without thought, the mind ideally is well-developed in concentration & calmness. Small arisings of craving can be observed

    2. Otherwise (if the mind is not well-developed), when craving arises, attempt to subdue any thoughts in relation to the craving in order to familiarize the mind with the energy, propulsion, urge & drive of the craving itself.


  2. #12
    Forums Member Thinker's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2016
    Posts
    42
    Thank you Element, your explanation is of great help!

  3. #13
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    Quote Originally Posted by Thinker View Post
    Thank you Element, your explanation is of great help!
    Thank you Thinker.

    I will complete the remainder soon.

    Kind regards

  4. #14
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    Cattārimāni bhikkhave, upādānāni: kāmūpadānaṃ, diṭṭhūpādānaṃ, sīlabbatūpādānaṃ, attavādūpādānaṃ.

    These four are attachments: sensuality attachment, view attachment, precept & rituals attachment and doctrine of self attachment.

    MN 9
    'Attachment' or 'grasping' ('upadana') is the 9th condition of dependent origination. The Pali word 'upadana' means to 'take up' or 'pick up', which is well-described in SN 22.22:

    Taking up the burden in the world
    is stressful.
    Casting off the burden
    is bliss.
    Having cast off the heavy burden
    and not taking up another...
    In the most primal sense, SN 12.12 describes 'attachment' as the first arising of 'self-view', when it states a "who" does not exist before clinging:

    "Who, O Lord, clings?"

    "The question is not correct," said the Exalted One, "I do not say that 'he clings.' Had I said so, then the question 'Who clings?' would be appropriate. But since I did not speak thus, the correct way to ask the question will be 'What is the condition of clinging?' And to that the correct reply is: 'Craving is the condition of clinging; and clinging is the condition of the process of becoming.' Such is the origin of this entire mass of suffering.
    While 'self-views' can spontaneously flow-out of ignorance as 'asava' in the 1st condition of dependent origination, such 'self-views' are from previously conditioned attachments.



    Importantly, attachment is not necessarily attachment to sensual pleasure, to views & opinions, to precept & rituals and to self-views (as is commonly translated, despite the word 'to' not existing in the Pali), as though the sensual pleasure, views & opinions, precepts & self-view exist prior to the attachment. The suttas state it is the five aggregates that are attached to, as follows:

    The Blessed One said, "And what, monks, are clingable phenomena? What is clinging?

    Form is a clingable phenomenon. Any desire-passion related to it, is clinging related to it.

    Feeling is a clingable phenomenon. Any desire-passion related to it, is clinging related to it.

    Perception is a clingable phenomenon. Any desire-passion related to it, is clinging related to it.

    Fabrications are clingable phenomena. Any desire-passion related to them, is clinging related to them.

    Consciousness is a clingable phenomenon. Any desire-passion related to it, is clinging related to it.

    SN 22.121
    Therefore, attachment includes creating ideas or notions about 'sensual pleasures' (e.g. 'beauty'; 'deliciousness'; 'sexiness', etc), creating views & opinions, creating rules & rituals and creating self-views about the five aggregates that are attached to.

    For example, MN 18 states:

    With contact as a requisite condition, there is feeling. What one feels (vedeti), one perceives (labels in the mind). What one perceives (sañjānāti), one thinks about (vitakketi). What one thinks about, one objectifies (papañceti).
    Or MN 64 states:

    For a young tender infant lying prone does not even have the notion ‘identity,’ so how could identity view arise in him? ... A young tender infant lying prone does not even have the notion ‘teachings,’ so how could doubt about the teachings arise in him? ...A young tender infant lying prone does not even have the notion ‘rules,’ so how could adherence to rules and observances arise in him? A young tender infant lying prone does not even have the notion ‘sensual pleasures,’ so how could sensual desire arise in him?... Yet the underlying tendencies... lie within him.
    MN 38 states: "Delight in feelings is attachment". Thus attachment here describes an indulgence in pleasurable feelings fuelled by craving, as described in the 2nd noble truth:

    ... craving which leads to new becoming, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there..
    Conclusion:

    1. Feeling is the condition of craving and craving is the condition of attachment.

    2. Feeling & craving do not contain thoughts. Thoughts occur at attachment.

    3. Attachment is not only the mind infatuated with, fixated upon & taking/picking up a sense object or a certain aggregate; attachment is also the mind developing ideas, notions, views & opinions about those sense objects & aggregates, such as they are beautiful or delicious (sensuality), they are good or bad, they should follow certain rules or they are 'selves'.

    4. Importantly, attachment is the beginning of suffering or stress. When the mind attaches, mental preoccupation, discomfort or a loss of freedom begins. Thus the 1st noble truth summarises all suffering as attachment to the five aggregates.
    In summary, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering. MN 56.11
    5. This being said, some attachments are easily comprehended to be suffering (for example, seeing your lover flirting with another person). However, for all attachments to be comprehended as suffering or a burden requires a taste of liberation in meditation. In reality, only the non-attached mind that knows freedom can fully comprehend all attachment is suffering.
    ‘I am’ is a conceiving. Conceiving is a disease, conceiving is a tumour, conceiving is a dart. By overcoming all conceivings, bhikkhu, one is called a sage at peace. MN 140

  5. #15
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    Next, I will move on to 'birth' ('jati'), the 11th condition of dependent origination.

    'Birth' is a most important condition to understand because there are many well-known sutta passages that use the term 'birth', such as:

    153. Through many a birth in samsara have I wandered in vain, seeking the builder of this house. Repeated birth is indeed suffering!

    154. O house-builder, you are seen! You will not build this house again. For your rafters are broken and your ridgepole shattered. My mind has reached the Unconditioned; I have attained the destruction of craving

    Dhammapada
    Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering.

    SN 56.11
    When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the recollection of past abodes/dwellings (nivasa). I recollected my manifold past abodes, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars I recollected my manifold past abodes.

    MN 19
    In the Gospel of John in the New Testament of Christianity there is the following passage. The wrong assumption of Nicodemus here can occur to Buddhists about the word 'birth', who may interpret it to be physical.

    Jesus replied, “Very truly I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God unless they are born again.”

    “How can someone be born when they are old?” Nicodemus asked. “Surely they cannot enter a second time into their mother’s womb to be born!”

    Jesus answered, “Very truly I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless they are born of water and the Spirit. 6 Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit[b] gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, ‘You must be born again.’

    John 3

  6. #16
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    The definition of 'birth' in the Pali is as follows:

    Katamā ca bhikkhave, jāti? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti nibbatti abhinibbatti, khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho, ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave, jāti.
    Below is a collection of translations:

    What is birth? The birth of beings into the various orders of beings, their coming to birth, precipitation [in a womb], generation, manifestation of the aggregates, obtaining the bases for contact — this is called birth.

    Ñanamoli Thera
    And what, bhikkhus, is birth? The birth of the various beings into the various orders of beings, their being born, descent [into the womb], production, the manifestation of the aggregates, the obtaining of the sense bases. This is called birth.

    Bhikkhu Bodhi
    And what is birth? Whatever birth, taking birth, descent, coming-to-be, coming-forth, appearance of aggregates, & acquisition of [sense] spheres of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called birth.

    Thanissaro Bhikkhu
    What is birth? It is being born, arising, coming to be among the various groups of sentient beings, the appearance of the various aggregates, the arising of a particular sense door.

    Bhikkhu Buddhadasa
    These translations in themselves are not exactly clear & can result in many assumptions or inferences. Therefore, it is important to attempt to find a definition and/or common usage of each Pali word to discern the true meaning.


  7. #17
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    A first key term in the definition of 'birth' ('jati') is 'beings' (sattā), namely, 'sattānaṃ' and 'sattanikāye'.

    It may be imagined the term 'beings' ordinarily refers to lifeforms or organisms, such as insects, animals or homo sapiens. However, fortunately, the suttas define exactly what is meant by the term 'a being' or 'sattā':

    ‘A being,’ lord. ‘A being,’ it’s said. To what extent is one said to be ‘a being’?

    Any desire, passion, delight or craving for form, feeling, perception, mental formations &/or consciousness Radha: when one is caught up there, tied up there, one is said to be ‘a being'.

    SN 23.2
    Why now do you assume ‘a being’? Mara, have you grasped a view? This is a heap of sheer constructions: Here no being is found. Just as, with an assemblage of parts, the word ‘chariot’ is used, so, when the aggregates are present, there’s the convention ‘a being.’

    SN 5.10
    In human bodies in themselves, nothing distinctive can be found. Distinction among human beings is purely verbal designation….For name & clan are assigned, originating in conventions…Whoever makes his living among men by agriculture is called a ‘farmer’…Whoever makes his living among men by merchandise is called a ‘merchant’…that is how the wise truly see…seers of dependent origination.

    MN 98
    The suttas also state 'a being' ends by abandoning craving (rather than by the termination of life):

    Just as when boys or girls are playing with little sand castles: as long as they are not free from passion, desire, love, thirst, fever, & craving for those little sand castles, that's how long they have fun with those sand castles, enjoy them, treasure them, feel possessive of them. But when they become free from passion, desire, love, thirst, fever, & craving for those little sand castles, then they smash them, scatter them, demolish them with their hands or feet and make them unfit for play.

    In the same way, Radha, you too should smash, scatter & demolish form, and make it unfit for play. Practice for the ending of craving for form.

    You should smash, scatter, & demolish feeling... perception.. fabrications ...consciousness and make it unfit for play. Practice for the ending of craving for consciousness — for the ending of craving, Radha, is Nibbana.

    SN 23.2
    Therefore, from the examination of this singe word 'sattā' it appears, according to the Pali suttas, the 'birth' of 'beings' is related to the formation of 'views', 'verbal designations' and 'conventions' based in entrapment in craving (rather than physical birth from a womb).

    This seems to be confirmed by SN 22.81, which states:

    There is the case where an uninstructed person assumes form, feeling, perception, mental formations &/or consciousness to be a ‘self’. That assumption is a mental formation. Now what is the cause, what is the origination, what is the birth, what is the coming-into-existence of that fabrication? To an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person, touched by that which is felt born of contact with ignorance, craving arises. That mental formation of ‘self’ is born from that. And that mental formation is impermanent, fabricated, dependently arisen. That craving… That feeling… That contact… That ignorance is impermanent, fabricated, dependently arisen.

    SN 22.81

  8. #18
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    Next is the series of terms, namely, sañjāti okkanti nibbatti and abhinibbatti.

    A quick search of the suttas finds:

    1. No use of the term 'sañjāti' in other contexts. Whilst dictionaries cannot be relied on, a dictionary states:

    sañjati
    is the P. correspondent of sajati1(sṛj), but Sk. sañj = sajjati (to hang on, cling)
    2. 'Okkanti' is found abundantly but not clear, such as in:

    This adharmic wielding of weapons,
    descended (okkanto) from times of old:
    in this are the innocents slain

    Snp 2.7
    Monks, the eye is inconstant, changeable, alterable. The ear... The nose... The tongue... The body... The mind is inconstant, changeable, alterable.

    One who has conviction & belief that these phenomena are this way is called a faith-follower: one who has entered (okkanto) the orderliness of rightness, entered the plane of people of integrity, transcended the plane of the run-of-the-mill...

    SN 25.1
    Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu lacks faith, is not virtuous, has little learning, is lazy and is stupid. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with these five things becomes/falls into/is overcome by (okkanto) timid.

    AN 5.158
    3. 'Nibbati' means 'produced':

    It is impossible... a disagreeable result could be produced (nibbatteyya) from good conduct...

    AN 1.284
    Any kamma, bhikkhus, fashioned through greed, born of greed, caused by greed, originated by greed, ripens (vipaccati) wherever individuality (attabhāvo: lit: 'self-becoming') is produced (nibbattati). Wherever that kamma ripens, it is there that result is experienced, either here & now (diṭṭheva dhamme), later [in this lifetime] (upapajje) or following that (apare pariyāye).

    A person unknowing:
    the actions performed by him,
    born of greed, born of aversion,
    & born of delusion,
    whether many or few,
    are experienced (vedaniyaṃ) right here (idheva):
    no other ground is found.

    AN 3.34
    4. 'Abhinibbatti' similarly means 'produced':

    The arising, continuation, production (abhinibbatti) & manifestation in respect to the eye is the arising of suffering.

    SN 26.1
    Suppose, bhikkhus, an artist or a painter, using dye or lac or turmeric or indigo or crimson, would create the figure of a man or a woman complete in all its features on a well-polished plank or wall or canvas. So too, when the uninstructed worldling produces (abhinibbattento) anything, it is only form that he produces (abhinibbatteti); only feeling that he produces; only perception that he produces; only volitional formations that he produces; only consciousness that he produces.

    SN 22.100
    By recollecting his ancient maternal & paternal family lineage, his individuality (attabhavassa) is produced (abhinibbatti)...

    MN 96 (Element translation)

    Bhikkhu Bodhi footnote: 'attabhāvassa abhinibbatti' literally should be: "wherever the reconception of his individuality takes place".
    Each of the above terms is used in relation to mental phenomena thus the terms sañjāti okkanti nibbatti and abhinibbatti appear to refer to the mental clinging, conception, development & production of views or ideas of 'beings' (sattā).


  9. #19
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    Next is the very important phrase 'khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo', which is rarely if ever discussed.

    The term 'khandhānaṃ' refers to the five aggregates, namely, body, feeling, perception, mental formations & consciousness. This is straightforward.

    However, it is important to mention the suttas refer to two types of five aggregates, namely: (i) mere aggregates unaffected by attachment; and (ii) aggregates affected by attachment; as follows:

    Bhikkhus, I will teach you the five aggregates and the five aggregates subject to clinging. Listen to that….

    And what, bhikkhus, are the five aggregates? Whatever kind of form there is, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near: this is called the form aggregate. Whatever kind of feeling there is … this is called the feeling aggregate. Whatever kind of perception there is … this is called the perception aggregate. Whatever kind of mental formations there are … these are called the mental formations aggregate. Whatever kind of consciousness there is, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near: this is called the consciousness aggregate. These, bhikkhus, are called the five aggregates.

    And what, bhikkhus, are the five aggregates subject to clinging? Whatever kind of form there is, whether past, future, or present … far or near, that is tainted, that is clung to: this is called the form aggregate subject to clinging. Whatever kind of feeling there is … that is tainted, that is clung to: this is called the feeling aggregate subject to clinging. Whatever kind of perception there is … that is tainted, that is clung to: this is called the perception aggregate subject to clinging. Whatever kind of mental formations there are … that are tainted, that is clung to: these are called the mental formations aggregate subject to clinging. Whatever kind of consciousness there is, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, that is tainted, that is clung to: this is called the consciousness aggregate subject to clinging. These, bhikkhus, are called the five aggregates subject to clinging.

    SN 22.48
    Since attachment to one or more of the aggregates as "self" began at the 9th condition, it would seem logical the aggregates referred to at the 11th condition of "birth" are aggregates subject to attachment/clinging rather than mere aggregates devoid of self-view.

    That MN 64 states a new born child cannot have self-view is another reason showing 'jati' or 'birth' in dependent origination does not refer to physical birth from a womb.

    As for mere aggregates unaffected by attachment, this is described in suttas such as SN 22.1, SN 22.85 & SN 22.53:

    There is the case where a well-instructed disciple of the noble ones — who has regard for noble ones, is well-versed & disciplined in their Dhamma; who has regard for men of integrity, is well-versed & disciplined in their Dhamma — does not assume form to be the self, or the self as possessing form, or form as in the self, or the self as in form. He is not seized with the idea that 'I am form' or 'Form is mine.' As he is not seized with these ideas, his form changes & alters, but he does not fall into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair over its change & alteration.

    He does not assume feeling to be the self...

    He does not assume perception to be the self...

    He does not assume fabrications to be the self...

    He does not assume consciousness to be the self

    SN 22.1
    If, friend Yamaka, they were to ask you: ‘Friend Yamaka, when a bhikkhu is an arahant, one whose taints are destroyed, what happens to him with the breakup of the body, after death?’—being asked thus, what would you answer?

    If they were to ask me this, friend, I would answer thus: ‘Friends, form is impermanent; what is impermanent is unsatisfactory; what is unsatisfactory has ceased and passed away. Feeling … Perception … Volitional formations … Consciousness is impermanent; what is impermanent is unsatisfactory; what is unsatisfactory has ceased and passed away.’ Being asked thus, friend, I would answer in such a way.

    Good, good, friend Yamaka!

    SN 22.85
    If a monk abandons passion for the property of consciousness, then owing to the abandonment of passion, the support is cut off, and there is no landing of consciousness. Consciousness, thus not having landed, not increasing, not concocting, is released. Owing to its release, it is steady. Owing to its steadiness, it is contented. Owing to its contentment, it is not agitated. Not agitated, he (the monk) is totally unbound right within. He discerns that 'Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for this world.'

    SN 22.53
    In conclusion, the term 'khandhānaṃ' found in the phrase 'khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo' should logically refer to 'aggregates' subject to the attachment that arose at the 9th condition because the word 'satta' ('a being'), as previously discussed, is synonymous with 'attachment' ('upadana').

    In summary, the definition of 'birth' ('jati') so far appears to be stating the mind produces (abhinibbatti) the view, idea or concept of 'a being' ('satta') from the appearance or manifestation ('pātubhāvo') of the aggregates ('khandhānaṃ').

    Thus, as stated in MN 96 and MN 98, the various kinds of 'beings' are conventions mentally/verbally produced & designated from the superficial external 'appearance' ('look') of aggregates:

    By recollecting his ancient maternal & paternal family lineage, his individuality (attabhavassa) is produced (abhinibbatti)...

    MN 96
    In human bodies in themselves, nothing distinctive can be found. Distinction among human beings is purely verbal designation….For name & clan are assigned, originating in conventions…Whoever makes his living among men by agriculture is called a ‘farmer’…Whoever makes his living among men by merchandise is called a ‘merchant’…that is how the wise truly see…seers of dependent origination.

    MN 98

  10. #20
    Forums Member Element's Avatar
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    4,282
    The term 'pātubhāvo' is less straightforward. Many translations including this word are difficult to discern in a straightforward manner, which means meaning has been lost in the translation.

    Most directly relevant to the term phrase 'khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo' is SN 22.30, which states about each of the five aggregates:

    At Savatthi. Bhikkhus, the arising (uppādo), continuation (ṭhiti), production (abhinibbatti) and manifestation (pātubhāvo) of form is the arising of suffering, the continuation of disease, the manifestation (pātubhāvo) of aging-and-death. The arising of feeling … of perception … of volitional formations … of consciousness is the arising of suffering, the continuation of disease, the manifestation of aging-and-death.

    The cessation (nirodho), subsiding (vūpasamo) and passing away (atthaṅgamo) of form … of consciousness is the cessation of suffering, the subsiding of disease, the passing away of aging-and-death.

    SN 22.30
    This same discourse is also found in Chapter 26 of the SN, however in respect to each of the six sense organs, six sense objects, six sense consciousness, six sense contacts and all feelings, perceptions, volitions, cravings, elements & aggregates.

    Monks, the arising, continuation, production & manifestation (pātubhāvo) of the ear, ears... sights, sounds... eye-consciousness... contact... feeling... perception... volition... craving ... elements... five aggregates is the arising suffering.

    SN 26
    Even more interesting & unusual, the same discourse is found at SN 14.36 merely about the four material elements:

    At Savatthi. Bhikkhus, the arising, continuation, production and manifestation of the earth element... the water element... the heat element... the air element.... is the arising of suffering, the continuation of disease, the manifestation of aging-and-death.

    The cessation, subsiding and passing away of the earth element... the water element... the heat element... the air element is the cessation of suffering, the subsiding of disease, the passing away of aging-and-death.

    AN 14.36
    Now, a literal reading of each of the above sutta excerpts places them in contradiction to core dhamma principles because the body of suttas clearly state material elements, aggregates or sense spheres in themselves do not result in suffering. In other words, there must be craving & attachment for suffering to occur.

    Therefore, the term 'pātubhāvo' ('manifestation'), similar to the term 'abhinibbatti' ('production'), appears to refer to mental actions rather than to the appearance of an infant from its mother's womb.


Page 2 of 3 FirstFirst 1 2 3 LastLast
Los Angeles Mexico City London Colombo Kuala Lumpur Sydney
Wed, 1:05 PM Wed, 3:05 PM Wed, 9:05 PM Thu, 1:35 AM Thu, 4:05 AM Thu, 7:05 AM