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McKmike
07 Mar 20, 12:47
I have recently read "What the Buddha Thought" by Richard Gombrich, a book I can unreservedly recommend

On page 11 of the introduction, Mr Gombrich states "I believe that it (karma) is not only fundamental to the Buddha's whole view of life, but also a kind of lynchpin which holds the rest of the basic tenents together by providing the perfect example of what they mean. "

The view of karma Mr Gombrich says was unique to the Buddha was the ethicization of Karma with individual responsibility

What do you think of this idea

woodscooter
12 Mar 20, 10:52
I've not read the book, so my reply is based entirely in what you've said in your post.

Karma is a powerful concept and it has been expressed in different ways by many people. It is sometimes presented as a system of reward and punishment, sometimes it is thought of as explaining events working out from one lifetime to the next. It's also simply put as "what you sow, so shall you reap".

However you view karma, acceptance of karma does lead to acceptance of a system of ethics. For you are responsible for what you do, and the Buddha's eight-fold path certainly sets out a direction for the individual to tread.

Personally, I have no belief in karma as some kind of universal mechanism determining outcome. I believe that you can lead a bad life and get away with it, lead a good life and be consumed with misfortune. You can lead a bad life and die early, lead a good life and be happy. And everything in between.

Despite my rejection of the laws of karma (and the idea of living one mortal life after another) I still accept the basic tenets of Buddhism. So I would disagree with Prof. Gombrich that karma is a lynchpin holding it all together.

Still, Richard Gombrich is an accomplished academic who has devoted much of his life to the study of the languages and concepts of Buddhism and I have a great respect for him.

Esho
12 Mar 20, 14:19
No way! Kamma is not a lynchpin neither fundamental to the buddha's whole view of life. Kamma as rebirth are only a teaching to improve ethical conduct in lay followers that are used to believe in future lives after death. Indeed, in order to practice lokutara teachings you have to forget about kamma and rebirth and do good and behave just because.

;D

Aloka
12 Mar 20, 18:35
I think its worth noting that the idea of Kamma/Karma already existed in Brahman and Jain beliefs at the time of the Buddha, so it wasn't something exclusive to the Buddha's teachings.

Also worth remembering:




The theory of karma should not be confused with so-called 'moral justice' or 'reward and punishment'. The idea of moral justice, or reward and punishment, arises out of the conception of a supreme being, a God, who sits in judgment, who is a law-giver and who decides what is right and wrong. The term 'justice' is ambiguous and dangerous, and in its name more harm than good is done to humanity. The theory of karma is the theory of cause and effect, of action and reaction; it is a natural law, which has nothing to do with the idea of justice or reward and punishment. Every volitional action produces its effects or results. If a good action produces good effects and a bad action bad effects, it is not justice, or reward, or punishment meted out by anybody or any power sitting in judgment on your action, but this is in virtue of its own nature, its own law.

(from Ch 3 of "What the BuddhaTaught" by Walpola Rahula)



returning to the OP #1,




Mr Gombrich states "I believe that it (karma) is not only fundamental to the Buddha's whole view of life, but also a kind of lynchpin which holds the rest of the basic tenents together by providing the perfect example of what they mean.

I find this idea of Karma holding "the rest of the basic tenets together" quite puzzling - and wondered if you had any example's which were given by Professor Gombrich, Mike?



:hands:

Avisitor
13 Mar 20, 03:55
If the idea of Karma predates the Buddha then would re-birth also?
Is this idea of Karma part of the teachings of Buddha?
Or is it a part of someone's writings who came after the Buddha??

Aloka
13 Mar 20, 05:58
If the idea of Karma predates the Buddha then would re-birth also?

Yes


Is this idea of Karma part of the teachings of Buddha?

Yes

If you write" karma or kamma" or "rebirth" in the search box under the banner you''ll be able to find several previous topics on the subject.

Here are two of them:

"How does karma really work":

https://www.buddhismwithoutboundaries.com/showthread.php?7534-How-Does-Karma-Really-Work&highlight=karma+work

and

"Considering karma"

https://www.buddhismwithoutboundaries.com/showthread.php?6996-Considering-Karma (https://www.buddhismwithoutboundaries.com/showthread.php?6996-Considering-Karma&highlight=Karma)

Avisitor
13 Mar 20, 10:44
To me, it seems that people have a belief and one does not fight the flow of people's beliefs
It is either to flow with the river or to get washed away.
This from experience. :(

Also, I would believe that Buddha himself would not be discussing matters that put more thought into one's mind that distracts from the practice. :reading:

It borders on the impractical And, seems to serve as fodder for more discussion than understanding the truth of one's nature

:peace:

Sorry, going against the flow again

philg
13 Mar 20, 11:33
The definition of karma that works for me is that things arise on conditions. In a Buddhist context it means that what you do has consequences, so take care over what you do. The positive thing is that if you follow the path you create the conditions for changes you want within yourself and, hopefully, for changes in how you interact with others. Whether or not others put an emphasis on different definitions of karma is pretty much irrelevant to me, except that I wish everyone well with working with their interpretation.

I'm pretty sure the Buddha would have redefined Karma for the individual he was talking to at the time, having the skills to know what each person needed to make progress, so would not have been propagating any single definition that we could now access from the Dharma.

Avisitor
14 Mar 20, 03:19
Why would Buddha need to redefine Karma for each individual?
Progress along the path is not dependent upon Karma but upon the efforts of the individual.

philg
14 Mar 20, 11:50
I should have been a bit clearer. The idea of karma was around at the time, so the Buddha would have taught each individual what they needed when they needed it. If they needed the idea of karma he would have taught them it, if they needed to get rid of the idea of karma he would have done that too. The idea is that he aided each individual to achieve what they needed. That's my understanding after 35 years of teaching too.

rocala
29 Mar 20, 11:05
I should have been a bit clearer. The idea of karma was around at the time, so the Buddha would have taught each individual what they needed when they needed it. If they needed the idea of karma he would have taught them it, if they needed to get rid of the idea of karma he would have done that too. The idea is that he aided each individual to achieve what they needed. That's my understanding after 35 years of teaching too.

Hi philg, I am struggling somewhat with your post here. It comes over, to me at least, more like therapy than education. What is this need that consists of opposites?

philg
29 Mar 20, 11:50
I guess it's different from the kind of education where you learn 'stuff' for an exam, more like that where you are to gain skills, in this case skills of seeing the world in a different way. If he thought karma was useful he would teach karma, if he thought it was holding someone back, he would teach that karma didn't exist. Just as you would tell a worried young child, "Don't worry, you aren't going to die" rather than the truth that they are going to die someday.

Some would say that what the Buddha taught is indeed a therapy, a therapy for the mind which doesn't need 'facts' but the ability to see for itself. Zen is full of similar stuff such as koans, which are questions that have no set answer, despite many set answers being written over the years, but designed to build up a tension in the mind. the teacher insists on an answer, but also insists that any answer is wrong.

In the Buddha's case it's written that he gave individual answers to individual people according to their need at the time, which makes sense when there was no 'revealed knowledge' such as the Ten Commandments to anchor a religion but rather the ability to gain enlightenment through enlightenment experiences. Of course, if this meant imparting a bit of knowledge which sparked this off, all well and good. There are different strands of Buddhism which developed along such lines, but it wasn't what the Buddha was really about.

I guess I'm an adherent to the Heart Sutra which is, for me, about the path to enlightenment being about shedding all ideas, even saying there is 'no wisdom to attain' but instead to lose attachment to everything, including losing attachment. I remember my Buddhist teacher saying that it was like climbing a large pole and then coming to the top. What do you do then? Climb higher.

rocala
29 Mar 20, 12:36
Thank you, that is a good explanation. I guess what we are discussing is an example of upaya?

Element
06 Apr 20, 00:59
Progress along the path is not dependent upon Karma but upon the efforts of the individual.
Hello AV

It appears you have made a number of posts using certain terminology, such as 'karma' & 'rebirth' but have not implicitly defined the meaning of these words. In other words, the efforts of an individual is also 'karma'. The word 'karma' means 'action'.

Regards :peace:

philg
06 Apr 20, 11:32
Thank you, that is a good explanation. I guess what we are discussing is an example of upaya?

Yes, the idea of using expedient means. Ok if you understand the consequences of doing so, as the Buddha did, tricky for the rest of us. One problem I find in Buddhism is that there are a lot of seemingly conflicting ideas, such as one person all you need is to master one type of meditation, another that there are different types for different purposes. They are both 'right' in that they can both work.

Avisitor
07 Apr 20, 05:32
Hello AV

It appears you have made a number of posts using certain terminology, such as 'karma' & 'rebirth' but have not implicitly defined the meaning of these words. In other words, the efforts of an individual is also 'karma'. The word 'karma' means 'action'.

Regards :peace:

Did not think anyone cared for my opinion.
Karma is defined as the sum of a person's actions in this or previous existence in deciding the fate of their future existence.
Internet dictionary defines it as such.
I put it as what you sow is what you reap.
If you plant an orange seed then you will have oranges, not apples or pears.
Effort of an individual is more about the present efforts or actions rather than previous actions
So, not so much about Karma. More about present action.
Be here, now ... (loved Ram Dass)
And so progress along the path is dependent upon one's present efforts.

Of course, anyone can and will disagree.
Because talking about Karma is just more "grist for the mill"
More stuff to churn. It may help a little towards understanding with this mind
But, does nothing towards progress on the eight fold path.
If this type of understanding made a difference then scholars would see their Buddha nature
Reading and thinking would be the way of Buddha??
I just don't think Buddha would be expounding Karma as a way to receive the transmission??

Sorry, way off base and topic.
I apologize for this tirade.

Element
07 Apr 20, 13:34
Karma is defined as the sum of a person's actions in this or previous existence in deciding the fate of their future existence.
Thank you A.V.

In the Pali suttas, 'kamma' is separated into 'old kamma' and 'new kamma'. 'Old kamma' is (ultimately) considered to be impersonal and merely something to be 'felt' rather than 'identified with' (SN 12.37 (https://suttacentral.net/sn12.37/en/bodhi)). 'New kamma' is new intentional action of body, speech & mind' (SN 35.146 (https://suttacentral.net/sn35.146/en/bodhi)).

AN 3.61 (https://suttacentral.net/an3.61/en/bodhi) says if unknown/speculative past/old kamma is considered to determine one's current state, then this would result in inaction & confusion about how one should act & not act.


I put it as what you sow is what you reap.
In Buddhism, the above is general rather than absolute truth.


If you plant an orange seed then you will have oranges, not apples or pears.
The above is a general truth but not absolutely true. For example, you can ignorantly or naively do a harmful action and learn from that action, which gives rise to enlightenment & doing good actions. Therefore, sometimes you can plant smelly shit and reap fragrant flowers.


Effort of an individual is more about the present efforts or actions rather than previous actions
As referenced above, they are both called 'kamma' according to the Pali suttas.


But, does nothing towards progress on the eight fold path.
The noble eightfold path is called the 'kamma that ends kamma' (SN 35.146 (https://suttacentral.net/sn35.146/en/bodhi)) because when the delusion of 'self' is abolished, no 'doer' of kamma exists (apart from ignorance).


I just don't think Buddha would be expounding Karma as a way to receive the transmission??
He didn't. 'Kamma' is never called the 'special/unique teaching of the Buddhas' in the scriptures. 'Kamma' is merely a moral teaching, found in every religion. The special or unique teaching of the Buddha is how to end kamma.

Kind regards :peace:

trusolo
08 Apr 20, 14:42
That was an excellent post by Element! I think every thought and action is 'kamma' - I presume it has to be volitional. I have a side question regarding the following statement. As stated by Element

The noble eightfold path is called the 'kamma that ends kamma' (SN 35.146) because when the delusion of 'self' is abolished, no 'doer' of kamma exists (apart from ignorance).


So I was thinking that there are miniscule number of processes (thoughts and actions) that are actually done at the conscious level. Most of the stuff that keeps us alive and kicking happen at the unconscious level. One way to interpret that would be to say that there is no 'Self' that does those actions. Can this interpretation be applied to 'removing delusion of self'? Can we think of it as: when your conscious thoughts and actions are as effortless and Self-less as breathing and and a million other processes that happen non-consciously, we may view it as having removed the delusion of Self?

Avisitor
09 Apr 20, 04:13
He didn't. 'Kamma' is never called the 'special/unique teaching of the Buddhas' in the scriptures. 'Kamma' is merely a moral teaching, found in every religion. The special or unique teaching of the Buddha is how to end kamma.

Kind regards :peace:

Hmm, tearing apart a post statement by statement instead of incurring the full meaning by addressing the full post,
that I would call nit-picking or finding fault where one sees fault in the insignificant.
It is a technique used by some to find cracks and weakness
And ultimately to win arguments.
Still, you have a point ....

Karma being a teaching found in every religion means that Karma's place in early Buddhism
means that people put in their own prejudices in the interpretation of the Buddha's Dharma.
Some say the Buddha's special teaching is how to end Karma
Others say it is how to end suffering.

trusolo
09 Apr 20, 22:33
@Avisitor: I don’t get the difference in your last line. Could you please elaborate?

Aren’t they the same thing? Suffering is a label ascribed to fruits of kamma (some of them, as long as you are not free). So it would mean that “No kamma -> No suffering”.

Element
10 Apr 20, 03:10
I think every thought and action is 'kamma' - I presume it has to be volitional.
Maybe. However, not all volition has 'self' invested in it. Such selfless volition or kamma cannot reap an adverse result. That is why it does not really count as being 'kamma'. Generally, the word 'kamma' assumes self-view is involved.


Most of the stuff that keeps us alive and kicking happen at the unconscious level.
Possibly but this stuff may still generate suffering when mixed with attachment to it; such as the life force or will to live.


One way to interpret that would be to say that there is no 'Self' that does those actions.
Mmmm... on this level it seems the above is about 'instinct'; such as the survival instinct, life force or will to live.

Can this interpretation be applied to 'removing delusion of self'? Can we think of it as: when your conscious thoughts and actions are as effortless and Self-less as breathing and and a million other processes that happen non-consciously, we may view it as having removed the delusion of Self?
Yes. This is why (naturally - automatically -effortlessly) breathing is the primary object of meditation. When self-thinking is abandoned and the mind becomes silent & clear, it becomes aware how breathing is not-self and how breathing merely exists as a "non-conscious" natural process. Insight into not-self can begin by seeing clearly the body breathes by itself (rather than the self breathes). The body breathes without the volition of the mind or self. It merely simply breathes.

Kind regards :peace:

Element
10 Apr 20, 03:21
It is a technique used by some to find cracks and weakness... And ultimately to win arguments.
Certainly not, friend. It is a technique showing the giving of full mental attention to a post.


Still, you have a point ....
The suttas quoted have a point.


Some say the Buddha's special teaching is how to end Karma. Others say it is how to end suffering.
The two notions above are exactly the same in meaning. The ending of kamma is the ending of suffering, each brought about by the fulfillment of the noble eightfold path. Also, it was the Buddha who defined what his "special teaching" was.

Kind regards :peace:


And when he knew that Upāli’s mind was ready, pliable, rid of hindrances, joyful and confident he explained the special teaching of the Buddhas: suffering, its origin, its cessation and the path.

https://suttacentral.net/mn56/en/sujato


And what, bhikkhus, is the way leading to the cessation of kamma? It is this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

https://suttacentral.net/sn35.146/en/bodhi

Element
10 Apr 20, 03:31
Very good talk about kamma, here:


https://youtu.be/_Lzj4nKhUnc

Avisitor
10 Apr 20, 06:11
Certainly not, friend. It is a technique showing the giving of full mental attention to a post.
Why argue about this??
All that was pointed out is that some do use this technique to win arguments.

One can see what someone's views are by what they pick up upon
That is another technique to learn the state of mind of another.
Reminds me of the story of the two monks traveling together.
They saw a woman stuck by the side of the road which had been flooded.
She could not cross. So one monk picked up the woman and carried her across.
Later the other monk asked why he picked up the woman since monks are not to have female contact
The first monk replied, that he dropped the woman back by the road.
And asked why the other monk was still carrying her.


The two notions above are exactly the same in meaning. The ending of kamma is the ending of suffering, each brought about by the fulfillment of the noble eightfold path. Also, it was the Buddha who defined what his "special teaching" was.
Not quite the same. Since Karma was in every religion as you said. The four noble truths do not say ending Karma.
So others can interpret "ending of Karma" in whatever way that suits their religion. Not quite the same.
Although in your interpretation, it is the same.

Whenever looking at what was said or taught by Buddha, one must understand that it was a long time ago.
And information that is passed along, often gets changed and/or added on to. Much like in the game of telephone.
And, in an effort to learn more about a subject of interest, one might take in everything without filters
The Truth that remains the same is one's true nature and can be experienced by some who follow the Dharma.

Thank you for your reply and the encouragement

Aloka
10 Apr 20, 07:03
Why argue about this??

Hi Avisitor,

I don't see anything from Element in this thread that I would interpret as an "argument"!



All that was pointed out is that some do use this technique to win arguments.

One can see what someone's views are by what they pick up upon
That is another technique to learn the state of mind of another.



I don't see what any of that has got to do with this topic.

Just as a reminder....BWB is a friendly Buddhist discussion group and our debating about the teachings of the Buddha can be of great benefit to everyone's understanding and practice, as well as to our capabilities of interacting rationally and peacefully with others. It certainly isn't about winning or losing! (Please check Code of Conduct for further info.)

:topic: in #1, please.


May we all have good health and happiness in these difficult times.


With metta,

Aloka :hands:

McKmike
10 Apr 20, 13:17
I agree with Gombrich’s analysis of ethical Kamma being at the heart of the Buddha’s path, at least the Buddha of the Pali Canon.The Buddha of the Pali Canon was a supremely pragmatic teacher.

It is really important to understand that in his teaching Kamma means intentional action. It does not mean ‘Fate’ even though you can find this definition in some dictionaries. In the Pali Canon Kamma is intentional action which most often has the potential to give a result, however, this potential result can be modified and even cancelled by further intentional action.

https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn36/sn36.021.nypo.html

It could not be otherwise or there would be no path to Nibanna.

The view I currently hold about the Buddha’s path to liberation, is that reality is like an ocean wave of energy, this moment creating the momentum for the next moment, all of that momentum is a small part of the wave, the totality of the wave is all the other momentums giving the wave its energy, we are intrinsically linked to every other part of the wave.

On that basis, Kamma as intentional action works for me with rebirth, your intentional actions create the impetus for the rebirth into the next moment, the ripening of that impetus is dependant upon the many other factors operating in the wave.

Avisitor
10 Apr 20, 23:41
I don't see anything from Element in this thread that I would interpret as an "argument"!
When one makes statement and another contradicts that statement then it is the beginning of an argument.
So, I asked why argue about this.
This statement was meant as an end to continuing on that track.



I don't see what any of that has got to do with this topic.
It doesn't. It was part of his reply and I responded to it.
I would just drop it if one would let it go??


Just as a reminder....BWB is a friendly Buddhist discussion group and our debating about the teachings of the Buddha can be of great benefit to everyone's understanding and practice, as well as to our capabilities of interacting rationally and peacefully with others. It certainly isn't about winning or losing! (Please check Code of Conduct for further info.)
Sorry, if you see my response as not being part of a friendly discussion.
However, I do not see how I was being irrational or not being peaceful??


:topic: in #1, please.

May we all have good health and happiness in these difficult times.

With metta,

Aloka :hands:
It seems that I have rubbed some the wrong way.
I apologize. And will leave this subject alone.

Olderon
11 Apr 20, 14:17
Regarding the presentation of the talk (#23):

Found it difficult to follow the pace of the speaker, without becoming distracted by other local events as we have two cats and an Australian breed of dog called a Kelpie.

Also, found the speaker's voice volume, vocal patterns and the air turbulence interference effects on the microphone more than a bit annoying.

Wish the speaker had gotten much more quickly to point.

Seems like the topic should have been about "dream interpretation".

The speaker's assertion that human understanding as to the conscious mind benefiting by meditation is certainly valid based upon my experience and the experiences of many Buddhist practitioners and interested psychologists. However, I doubt that human "consciousness" can be improved through mediation with respect to our unconsciousness. This assertion is at best to me implausible in accordance with the findings of modern sleep science and neurological research. I think the speaker is confusing "dream state" as unconsciousness, whereas in fact it is not.

Dreams are understood today as the brain's way of reminiscence, which by definition is: " The act or process of recollecting past experiences or events."... such as he/she reports regarding his/her dreams of his/her climbing experiences. As such the brain is in fact conscious while dreaming, not unconscious.

Neuroscience has just begun to explore these sleeping brain states. Through various forms of nuclear magnetic resonance, neuroscientists are able to observe active (conscious) and inactive (unconscious) brain states, and chart their activity.

Resources for further study: https://images.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search;_ylt=AwrCwLX7wpFeU20Apg0PxQt.;_ylu=X3oDMTBy MjB0aG5zBGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMxBHZ0aWQDBHNlYwNzYw--?p=charts+of+active+and+inactive+brain+states+duri ng+dreaming+meaning&fr=yhs-symantec-ext_onb&hspart=symantec&hsimp=yhs-ext_onb&guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly9zZWFyY2gueWFob28uY29tL3lo cy9zZWFyY2g7X3lsdD1Bd3JDM0h4TnZwRmVheWdBd0hnUHhRdC 47X3lsYz1YMU1ETWpFeE5EY3dNRFUxT1FSZmNnTXlCR1p5QTNs b2N5MXplVzFoYm5SbFl5MWxlSFJmYjI1aUJHZHdjbWxrQTA5UW QyazBlVmxwVWtWSGEyWlBSa1JMVFcwek5VRUVibDl5YzJ4MEF6 QUVibDl6ZFdkbkF6UUViM0pwWjJsdUEzTmxZWEpqYUM1NVlXaH ZieTVqYjIwRWNHOXpBek1FY0hGemRISURRMmhoY25SeklHOW1J R0ZqZEdsMlpTQmhibVFnYVc1aFkzUnBkbVVnWW5KaGFXNGdjM1 JoZEdWeklHUjFjbWx1WnlCa2NtVmhiV2x1WndSd2NYTjBjbXdE TlRnRWNYTjBjbXdETmpZRWNYVmxjbmtEWTJoaGNuUnpKVEl3Yj JZbE1qQmhZM1JwZG1VbE1qQmhibVFsTWpCcGJtRmpkR2wyWlNV eU1HSnlZV2x1SlRJd2MzUmhkR1Z6SlRJd1pIVnlhVzVuSlRJd1 pISmxZVzFwYm1jbE1qQnRaV0Z1YVc1bkJIUmZjM1J0Y0FNeE5U ZzJOakV3T1RReEJIVnpaVjlqWVhObEF3LS0_cD1jaGFydHMrb2 YrYWN0aXZlK2FuZCtpbmFjdGl2ZSticmFpbitzdGF0ZXMrZHVy aW5nK2RyZWFtaW5nK21lYW5pbmcmZnIyPXNhLWdwLXNlYXJjaC Zoc3BhcnQ9c3ltYW50ZWMmaHNpbXA9eWhzLWV4dF9vbmImcGFy YW0xPWU3NjM5ODY0LTg0YzktNDBjMy1hNzBlLWU2MjFlZWU2NG YwZl8yMDIwLTA0LTAzX2NlJnBhcmFtMj1hcG4xMjE3NF9kaXJl Y3RfbWFyMjAmcGFyYW0zPW5nY18yMi4yMC4yLjU3X18mcGFyYW 00PTExMjImdHlwZT1jZV9hcG4xMjE3NF9tYXIyMF9f&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAD2JNdJshHWqGLKSzu95BxpWn5ci KYlSmeWkzsGqws72U0fdhlXQAtWUn2L3UlXjFdnyPKj9K-TRAzC9MUhE5ow62QAyhqyBeaL-eFLjiNU8EyiCuI-ozzaK0GJysqbIRg5-7Raerqt8ByltfkeVYpcMU581AAwWHi5CMMzSqxhF

woodscooter
11 Apr 20, 16:08
I listened carefully to the video (#23) "What is Karma". The speaker only mentions 'kamma' twice. The first at 0:10 and the other at 14:44. I have difficulty in understanding the message.

He used to do free climbing. Then he had vivid dreams of falling. He stopped free climbing.

Since adopting Buddhism and meditation, he has become more aware of the influence of his unconscious mind on his behaviour and thought-patterns. I think that he's actually talking about the 'subconscious' when he says 'unconscious'. That would make better sense to me.

Maybe I missed something there. I don't see any connection or explanation with kamma in the talk.

Aloka
12 Apr 20, 18:07
Here's an article from the Buddhist Door website: "The Meaning of Kamma in Early Buddhism":


https://www.buddhistdoor.net/features/the-meaning-of-kamma-in-early-buddhism


....and it concludes:





While the concept of karma may have originated in ancient Indic beliefs, Buddhism has evolved to reach rather different conclusions. However, it is interesting to note that, with the subsequent development of Buddhism, it is not uncommon for the average people who claim to be Buddhists to mistakenly harbour a view of karma/rebirth in a manner which is closer to Brahmanism than Buddhism.

It should also be noted that while early Buddhism viewed kamma as an individual responsibility, subsequent development of Buddhism saw the appearance of the concept of transference of kamma--- in particular of good kamma, merit----- even to the wicked. With the reification of kamma into a transferable commodity, some scholars think that the original doctrine of kamma has been stood on its head ( Gombrich, 1996, p 57).